State the principles on which the following operations are based:

(i) Zone refining

(ii) Vapour phase refining.

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(i) Zone refining based on the principle that impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the
solid state of the metal.

(ii) Vapour phase refining of metals: In this method, crude metal is freed from impurities by first converting it into volatile compound and collected elsewhere. It is then decomposed to give pure metal. For example refining of nickel by Mond process.

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